Computer Chalane Ki Puri Jankari – Computer Kya He Full Guid in Hindi


Computer Chalane Ki Puri Jankari –  Computer Kya He Full Guid in Hindi

Computer Ki Puri Jankari

Aajkal ka jamana computer ka jamana kehlaya jata hai. Computer Ki Jankari jisko hai usi ko mana jata he. Computer ka mahetwa aaj kal bohot badh gaya hai. Abhi har kisiko Computer ki basic cheeje aani chahiye. Har kshetra (field) me abhi Computer ka upayog badh gaya hai. Jise Sanaganak Kaise Chalaye nahi pata wo nirakshar kehalaya jata he. To fir chalo, jante hai kucch chije computer ke bare me. Padhenge  basic computer kya hota hai aur use kaise istemaal karte hai. To chaliye jane Computer Ki Jankari and Sanaganak Kaise Chalaye In hindi.
Dosto aaj ke adhunik yug me aapko yadi computer ki jayda jankari nahi hai to kam se kam aapko computer ki basic jankari hona bahut jaruri hai kyonki aaj ke yug me hum jaha kahi bhi jaate hai, kisi bhi field me to aapko computer ki jarurat padti hai. Present time me hum mano computer se ghire huye hai or lag bhag hamare saare kaam computer se ho rahe hai. Aur aaj kal hamare kaam computer par din par din badhte ja rahe hai or computer digital device hota ja raha hai.

Computer Kya Hai

Computer ek yantra he. English me use device kehte he, Electronic device. Jisko Hame kuch data dena padta he. Matlab shuruwat me computer sirf ek blank device rehta he, hume usme jankari store karni padti hai. Uske bad wo chalu karne ke bad hamare diye gaye nirdeshoke (instructions) ke anusar wo hame store kiya hua data jise hum information kehte he. Wo hume batata he.
Computer Me Programs hote he. Jo ye data ko information me badalta he aur hame bhejta hai. Jin nirdesho ke anusar ye Computer kam karta hai use Program kehte hai. Hindi me computer ko Sanagank bhi kaha jata he. English me kayi log use PC bhi kehte he. PC matlab Personal Computer, yani Vyaktigat Computer. Personal Computer ek banda hi use kar sakata hai. Aapne Shared Computer bhi suna hoga. Is prakar me ek hi Computer par ek se jada log kam kar skate he.
Computer ka khoj kisne ki tha "CHARLESBABAGE" naam ka ek British mathematician (गणितज्ञ). Charles babage 1832 me "Analog computer" avishkar kiya tha. Iske baad Harvard university ka Professor "HYWARD AKIN" ek Mechanical Computer banaya tha. Bad me Digital computer avishkar huya joo ki Mechanical Computer se 200 गुना तेजी tha, uske bad dhire dhire aajka computer agaya joo haam log abhi istemal karte hai.
  1. आधुनिक Computer Ka पिताCHARLES BABAGE
  2. Mechanical Computer Ka Avishkarak - HYWARD AKIN
Computer Ka Full Name Kya Hai ?
Computer ka full Form hai - "Common Operating Machine Particularly Used for Technical, Education and Research"

Computer kaise complete hota hai

Jaisa ki hum sab jaante hai ki computer ek electronic device hai lekin aaj kal ke computers ke use or kaam dekhkar hum ise digital device bhi kah sakte hai. Hamara computer do chijo se milkar banta hai hardware or software. Hardware computer ki wo cheej hai jise hum dekh sakte hai, chhu sakte hai or mehsoos kar sakte hai jaise ki computer ki input devices or output devices. Software computer system ki wo cheej hai jise na hum dekh sakte hi or na chhu sakte hai or na hi mehsoos kar sakte hai. Software apke computer system ke CPU me daale jaane wala ek programming or operating system hota hai.
Software aapke computer system ko operate karta hai, programming karta hai or aapke dwara diye gaye order ko process karne ki permission deta hai. Software ke bina aapka hardware matlab ki aapka computer system ek khali dabba hai. Hardware or software ek dusre ke purak hai mano ki hardware computer ki body hai to software computer system ki aatma hai.
Jab hum apna naya computer system laate hai to wo ek khaali khoke ki tarah rahta hai aap jab tak isme software nahi dalenge tab tak aap iska puri tarah se use nahi kar payenge. Software or drivers ko data bhi kah sakte hai. Jaise ki computer system ko operate or programming karne ke liye operating system windows xp, windows 7, windows 8, windows 10 koi ek operating system daalna padta hai. Saath hi audio, videos etc ko chalane ke liye unke drivers daalne padte hai. Aapke computer me uske dale huye windows ke hisaab se hi options or functions hote hai or ye Binary digit 0 or 1 ke adhaar par kaam karta hai.

Computer  kaise chalaye – Computer Ki Jankari

Dosto pahle aap isme computer ki sanrachna or uski process and uske kaam karne ki pranaali jaan chuke hai. Ab jaante hai ki computer – sanaganak kaise chalaye. Jaisa ki me aapko pahle hi bata chuka hu ki kisi computer ko chalane ke pahle aapko computer ka basic knowledge hona chahiye. Kyonki computer ko chalane ke pahle aapko uski input, output devices or unke parts ki thodi bahut jankari hona bahut jaruri hai, tabhi aap apne computer ko sahi tarike se input devices ke through order de paayenge or aapka computer system us par process karke aapko output devices ke through result de paayega.
1. Computer Ka Use :
Aabhi aap jobhi karo aapko computer ki jorurat jorur padega, chahe aap ghar par koi kaam karo yafir office me kaam karo computer ke bina kuch bhi nahi hoga. Computer har jaga use hota hai, jaise ki - Bank, Office, Home, Schools, Collage har kisi jaga computer ki jorurat hota hai. Agar aap koi business start karna chahate ho too aapko computer chalana jorur sikhna hoga. Asal me abhi computer ke bina aap kuch bhi kaam nahi kar sakote.
2. Computer के प्रकार :
Kaam ki hisab se Computer 3 प्रकार ka hota hai -
  1. Digital Computer 
  2. Analog Computer 
  3. Hybrid Computer
Aur Digital Computer 5 type ke hota hai jaise ki -

  1. Grid Computer
  2. Super Computer
  3. Mainframe Computer
  4. Mini Computer
  5. Micro Computer
Ham log joo computer istemal karte hai wo hai "Micro Computer" aur ye micro computer 6 type ke hota hai -

  1. Desktop Computer
  2. Laptop Computer
  3. Palmtop Computer
  4. Notebook Computer
  5. Pocket Computer
  6. Home Computer
3. Software Kya Hai? Computer Ke sath iska क्या संबंध है ?
Computer chalane ke liye Computer ko joo sabse jada jorurat hota hai, un sabko ek sath milakar Software bola jata hai. Asal me software ka विकल्प naam hai  program. Computer par aagar software run na kiya jai too us computer ke koi faida nahi hai. Kyuki ek computer ko run karne ke liye sabse jada jorurat hai software, software ke bina computer kuch bhi nahi. Software doo traha ke hota hai.

  1. System Software
  2. Application Software

1. System Software :
Software जो कंप्यूटर में यूजर को ऐसा Environment दे, जिससे यूजर को कंप्यूटर चलाने में आसानी हो। ऐसे Softwares को System Software कहा जाता है यह कंप्यूटर के Hardware और Application Software  को मेनेज करता है। और उनसे काम करवाता है।  System Software कई प्रोग्रामो और सॉफ्टवेयर का समूह है। System Software 4 traha ke hota hai-

  1. Operating System Software
  2. Utility Software
  3. Translator software
  4. Graphical user interface Software

2. Application Software :
इनमे वे Software जो यूजर की प्रॉब्लम को हल करने के लिए बनाये जाते है। एप्लीकेशन सॉफ्टवेयर End User होते है। यह सीधा यूजर को इंटरफ़ेस देते है। इन्हें जरूरत पढने पर कंप्यूटर पर Install और Remove किया जा सकता है। यह Softwear System software ki मदद se Computer परkam karta he.
Exm:- Microsoft Office, Web Browser, Music Player, Photo Shop, etc.
Applications Software 2 traha ke hota hai -

  1. Package software
  2. Customized software


4. Computer language :
Har traha ke Computer Application banane ke liye joo language istemal hota hai usi ko computer language bolte hai. Joo language sirf aur sirf computer hi samajta hai. Exam: machine language, Assembly Language, High level language, COBOL, Basic, Pascal, FORTRAN, C, C++, Java, Algol, Mathematica, Python etc.
5. Hardware :
Computer Hardware yani ki computer ke wo part hai joo ham dekhne ne ke sath sath chubhi sate hai. Inn Part ko Mechanical, Electrical,ya Electrons Part bhi kehe sakte hain. Ek computer me alag alag traha ke hardware part hota hai jaise ki-
  • CPU
  • Hard-disk
  • DVD
  • Motherboard
  • RAM
  • Monitor/LCD
  • keyboard
  • mouse
  • etc.
Computer Hardware 3 traha ke hota hai -
  1. Input Device 
  2. C.P.U 
  3. Output Device

Input Devices

Computer Ko suchna dene ke liye hume input device ki aavashyakta hoti hai. Bohot saare devices he jinse hum computer ko instructions de skte hai.
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Joy Stick
  • Light pen
  • Track Ball
  • Scanner
  • Graphic Tablet
  • Microphone
  • Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR)
  • Optical Character Reader(OCR)
  • Bar Code Reader
  • Optical Mark Reader(OMR)

Output Devices

Computer se prapt ki hui information ko user ko batane ke liye ya represent karne ke liye output device use hota hai. Hum apni sari jankari computer ke screen par dekhte hai, wo ek output device hai.
  • Monitors
  • Graphic Plotter
  • Printer
  • Projectors
  • Speakers
  • Headphones
  • Punched card input/output
  • Punched tape
  • Voice output communication aid
  • Automotive navigation system
  • Braille embosser
  • Video
  • Plotter
  • Wireless

Data Kya He

Aapne data shabd bohot bar suna hoga, Computer ke kshetra me ye vibhinna prakar me prayukt hota he. Jis par prakriya karne se arthpurn suchna prapt hoti he. Data ko raw data bhi kaha jata he. Jiska matlab he jispar koi prakriya nahi ki gayi ho. Data alag alag rup me hamare computer par rehta he. Jaise ki Images, Photos, Videos, Gaane, File, Documents. Raw Data par Prakriya karne ke bad usko Information me badla jata he.

Process – Prakriya

Data jaise akshar, ank, sankhya, ya kisi image, video ko suvyavasthit karne ki unki ganana ko prakriya kehte he. Kisi bhi data ko arthpurn jankari me badlne ke liye use prakriya se gujarna jaroori he. Uske bad uska information me rupantar hota he.

Arithmetical Unit 

Jodna, Ghatana, Guna karna aur bhag dena ya fir ausat karna ye sari chieeje Ganana me aati he. Computer me ek vibhag hota he is Ganan kriya ke liye use CPU kaha jata he. Ye karya Decision Making me bhi aata hai. computer manushya se kafi tej he kyo ki, Computer ki calculation power bohot tej hoti hai.

Nirnay Lena – Decision Making

Computer hamare diye gaye suchna ke adhar par apne aap decision leta he ki is suchna par kya operation karna he. Computer shart aur tark ke adhar par ye nirnay leta he. Central Processing Unit ke jariye sare nirnay liye jate he. Computer ka karya input devices se mili suchnao ke adhar par chalta he. Input device me Mouse, Keyboard, Scanner in sbahi cheejo ka samavesh hota hai. Decision lene ke bad un signals ko hum output devices par dekhte hai. Jaise ki Monitor, Printer.

Logic – Tark

Aavashyak parinaam ko prapt karne  ke liye pado ke kram ko Logic kaha jata he. Prakriya kewal ank aur sankhya ki ganana ko hi nahi kehte. Balki Computer ki sahayta se dastaveji  me trutiya dhundhna, problem ko vyavasthit karna jaise kai kaam bhi Logic vibhag me aate he. Is vibhak ko english me Arithmetical and Logical Unit kehte hai. Is unit se saare functions Memory Unit se jude hote hai. Jaha se temporarily save ki hua data ka istamal karke wo tark lagake apne decisions leta hai. Ye unit bhi decision lene wale unit se Juda hota hai.

 

Computer Ki Block Diagram

Ye diagram dekh kar aapko computer ke functional units ka andaaj aa jayega.
Computer Chalane Ki Puri Jankari –  Computer Kya He Full Guid in Hindi

Computer (Sanaganak) ko chalane me kuch cheeje yaad Rakhe
  1. Dosto sabse pahli baat to ye hai ki apne computer ko fast or free rakhne ke liye apne computer ki RAM ko free rakhe jisse aapka computer fast kaam karega. Iskeliye computer me jayda or faltu ke software ko install na kare, jo software aap regular use karte hai unko hi computer me install karke rakhe.
  2. Computer me ek do se jayda drivers ko install karke na rakhe isse aapke computer ki RAM or hard disk par asar padta hai.
  3. Agar aapka computer galti se format ho gaya hai or aap koi windows apne computer system me daal rahe hai to agar aapko windows installation ki puri jankari nahi hai to adhuri jankari ke taur par new windows install na kare, ya to kisi ki help le ya fir computer care ki help le sakte hai. 

Aap apne computer system me acchi company ka antivirus software daalna na bhule. Antivirus daalne se aapke computer ki files, data etc corrupt nahi hoga or virus apke computer par asar nahi daal paayega.


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